The primary source of muscle energy production is Adenosine Triphosphate ->ATP). To produce ATP, living cells draw glucose from glycogen, a long-chain complex carbohydrate stored nearby in the muscles or liver. Each muscle store of glycogen has a chemical structure nearly identical to common starch and similar to long-chain maltodextrin. Glycogen is an endogenous Glucans Polysaccharide, very complex carbohydrate consisting of long-chains of glucose linked together. During exercise, the body's first choice is reducing glycogen to individual glucose molecules, which are shuttled into tiny mitochondria cells, which convert glucose to ATP for energy metabolism. Complimentary fat and amino acids ->from lean muscle tissue) are mobilized to postpone rapid depletion of glycogen and makeup any glycogen glucose shortfalls. ATP synthesis from muscle glycogen is the most efficient energy source, regenerating over double the rate energy from fat and lean muscle protein combined.
Glycogen, ->or "animal starch"), has a structure identical to plant starch Amylopectin. Starchy foods with the highest % of Amylopectin are structurally most like human muscle glycogen. Spirulina is the only known food source that contains pure glycogen ->24% of its calories from complex carbohydrates are "pure"glycogen.) Potato starch is the 2nd food-like glycogen and a close 3rd is grain maltodextrins.
Starch is a white, granular or powdery, odorless, tasteless, complex carbohydrate, ->C6H10O5)x, abundant in the seeds of cereal plants and in bulbs and tubers. Molecules of starch are made of hundreds or thousands of atoms, corresponding to values of x, as given in the formula above, that range from about 50 to many thousands. Native starch denotes untreated starch. Starch molecules present two structures.
In the first kind, Amylose ->figure 1), which constitutes about 20-25 per cent of ordinary starch, the C6H10O5 groups are arranged in a continuous but "curled chain" somewhat like a coil of rope.
In the second kind, Amylopectin ->figure 2), a considerable amount of side-branching in this molecule occurs.
amylose ->figure 1) Amylopectin ->figure 2)
Green plants manufacture starch during the process of photosynthesis. It forms part of the cell walls in plants, constitutes part of rigid plant fibers, and serves as a kind of energy storage for plants, because its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water releases energy. The granules of starch present in any plant have size, shape, and markings characteristic of the species of plant in which the starch is made. Starch is almost insoluble in cold water and in alcohol, but with boiling water it gives a colloidal suspension that may form a jelly on cooling. Hot water changes starch slowly into smaller molecules. This reaction, an example of hydrolysis, is catalyzed by acids and by some enzymes giving still simpler molecules, the ultimate products being maltose, C12H22O11, a disaccharide, and glucose, C6H12O6, a monosaccharide.
The digestion of starch in the human body takes the following course: the hydrolysis begins in the mouth under the action of salivary ptyalin, but is completed in the small intestine. The body does not immediately use all the glucose absorbed from the digestion of starch, but converts much of it to glycogen, which is stored in the liver. ->Glycogen, called animal starch, has a structure nearly identical with that of amylopectin.) As the body requires glucose, hydrolysis of glycogen releases it into the bloodstream. Glycogen provides an energy reserve for animals in the same way that ordinary starch does for plants.
Amylose Content and Granule Size of Various Starches
Granule Size Range ->m)
High Amylose Corn
Complex carbohydrate consists of branched chains of glucose units linked together. Plant starch is the human glycogen's counterpart with a chemical structure described simply as high Amylopectin:none-to-low-Amylose. Spirulina's carbohydrate fraction is the only known dietary source of glycogen ->58% protein, 24% carbohydrate, 18% fat). Glutamine is the one protein recruited by the body to manufacture glycogen. Other substrates are reported to improve the rate of the glycogen storage of including its production or conversion to glucose for energy: Sunflower Seeds, Magnesium, Potassium, alpha-Lipoic Acid, L-Carnitine, Vitamin K, Dimethyl or Trimethyl Glycine, and Vitamin B6. Hydroxycitric Acid ->HCA) increases the body's production of glycogen ->by diverting carbohydrates away from lipogenesis into glycogen production). This effect is achieved by inhibiting the ATP-Citrate Lyase enzyme.
Starch is the plant form of stored glycogen/carbohydrate ->for energy metabolism) nearly identical in structure and function to human glycogen, except for a much lower degree of branching ->about every 20-30 residues). Unbranched starch is called amylose; branched starch is called amylopectin. Maltodextrin are typically structured as a 7:3 Amylopectin:a-Amylose ratio compared to pure Glycogen 10:0 or Potato Starch's 8:2 Amylopectin:a-Amylose ratio. Corn and wheat starches are 7:2-3, while tapioca and rice varieties are close to the potato's 8:2 Amylopectin:a-Amylose ratio.
CARBOHYDRATE ENERGY BEGINS WITH DIGESTION
Dietary carbohydrate from which humans gain energy enter the body in simple or complex forms:
->1) Mono-/Di-Saccharides/Simple Short-chain Sugars
->2) Long Chain Polymers Starch/Maltodextrins ->Amylose + Amylopectin)
The polymer cellulose is also consumed but not digested. The first step in the metabolism of digestible carbohydrate is the conversion of the higher polymers to simpler, soluble forms that can be transported across the intestinal wall and delivered to the tissues. The breakdown of polymeric sugars begins in the mouth. Saliva has a slightly acidic pH of 6.8 and contains lingual amylase that begins the digestion of carbohydrates. The action of lingual amylase is limited to the area of the mouth and the esophagus; it is virtually inactivated by the much stronger acid pH of the stomach. Once the food has arrived in the stomach, acid hydrolysis contributes to its degradation; specific gastric proteases and lipases aid this process for proteins and fats, respectively. The mixture of gastric secretions, saliva, and food, known collectively as chyme, moves to the small intestine. The main polymeric-carbohydrate digesting enzyme of the small intestine is alpha-amylase. This enzyme is secreted by the pancreas and has the same activity as salivary amylase, producing disaccharides and trisaccharides. The latter are converted to monosaccharides by intestinal saccharidases, including maltases that hydrolyze di- and tri- saccharides, and the more specific disaccharidases, sucrase, lactase, and trehalase. The net result is the almost complete conversion of digestible carbohydrate to its constituent monosaccharides. The resultant glucose and other simple carbohydrates are transported across the intestinal wall to the hepatic portal vein and then to liver parenchymal cells and other tissues. There they are converted to fatty acids, amino acids, and glycogen, or else oxidized by the various catabolic pathways of cells. Oxidation of glucose is known as "glycolysis." Glucose is oxidized to either lactate or pyruvate. Under aerobic conditions, the dominant product in most tissues is pyruvate and the pathway is known as "aerobic glycolysis." When oxygen is depleted, as for instance during prolonged vigorous exercise, the dominant glycolytic product in many tissues is "lactate" and the process is known as "anaerobic glycolysis."
Stores of readily available glucose to supply the tissues with an oxidizable energy source are found principally in the liver, as glycogen. A second major source of stored glucose is the glycogen of skeletal muscle. However, muscle glycogen is not generally available to other tissues, because muscle lacks the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase.
The major site of daily glucose consumption ->75%) is the brain by way of aerobic pathways. Most of the remainder of is utilized by erythrocytes, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. The body obtains glucose either directly from the diet or from amino acids and lactate via gluconeogenesis. Glucose obtained from these two primary sources either remains soluble in the body fluids or is stored in a polymeric form, glycogen. GLYCOGEN is considered the principal storage form of glucose and is found mainly in liver and muscle, with kidney and intestines adding minor storage sites. With up to 10% of its weight as glycogen, the liver has the highest specific content of any body tissue. Muscle has a much lower amount of glycogen per unit mass of tissue, but since the total mass of muscle is so much greater than that of liver, total glycogen stored in muscle is about twice that of liver. Stores of glycogen in the liver are considered the main buffer of blood glucose levels.
DEGRADATION OF STORED GLYCOGEN ->glycogenolysis) occurs through the action of glycogen phosphorylase. The action of phosphorylase is to phosphorolytically remove single glucose residues from a-->1,4)-linkages within the glycogen molecules. The product of this reaction is glucose-1-phosphate. The advantage of the reaction proceeding through a phosphorolytic step is that:
1. The glucose is removed from glycogen is an activated state, i.e. phosphorylated and this occurs without ATP hydrolysis.
2. The concentration of Pi in the cell is high enough to drive the equilibrium of the reaction the favorable direction since the free energy change of the standard state reaction is positive.
The glucose-1-phosphate produced by the action of phosphorylase is converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase: this enzyme, like phosphoglycerate mutase ->of glycolysis), contains a phosphorylated amino acid in the active site ->in the case of phosphoglucomutase it is a Ser residue). The enzyme phosphate is transferred to C-6 of glucose-1-phosphate generating glucose-1,6-phosphate as an intermediate. The phosphate on C-1 is then transferred to the enzyme regenerating it and glucose-6-phospahte is the released product. As mentioned above the phosphorylase mediated release of glucose from glycogen yields a charged glucose residue without the need for hydrolysis of ATP. An additional necessity of releasing phosphorylated glucose from glycogen ensures that the glucose residues do not freely diffuse from the cell. In the case of muscle cells this is acutely apparent since the purpose in glycogenolysis in muscle cells is to generate substrate for glycolysis.
The conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose, which occurs in the liver, kidney and intestine, by the action of glucose-6-phosphatase does not occur in skeletal muscle as these cells lack this enzyme. Therefore, any glucose released from glycogen stores of muscle will be oxidized in the glycolytic pathway. In the liver the action of glucose-6-phosphatase allows glycogenolysis to generate free glucose for maintaining blood glucose levels. Glycogen phosphorylase cannot remove glucose residues from the branch points ->a-1,6 linkages) in glycogen. The activity of phosphorylase ceases 4 glucose residues from the branch point. The removal of this branch point glucose residues requires the action of debranching enzyme ->also called glucan transferase) which contains 2 activities: glucotransferase and glucosidase. The transferase activity removes the terminal 3 glucose residues of one branch and attaches them to a free C-4 end of a second branch. The glucose in a-->1,6)-linkage at the branch is then removed by the action of glucosidase. This glucose residue is uncharged since the glucosidase-catalyzed reaction is not phosphorylytic. This means that theoretically glycogenolysis occurring in skeletal muscle could generate free glucose, which could enter the blood stream. However, the activity of hexokinase in muscle is so high that any free glucose is immediately phosphorylated and enters the glycolytic pathway. Indeed, the precise reason for the temporary appearance of the free glucose from glycogen is the need of the skeletal muscle cell to generate energy from glucose oxidation, thereby, precluding any chance of the glucose entering the blood.
ENERGY DERIVED FROM GLUCOSE OXIDATION
Aerobic glycolysis of glucose to pyruvate requires two equivalents of ATP to activate the process, with the subsequent production of four equivalents of ATP and two equivalents of NADH. Thus, conversion of one mole of glucose to two moles of pyruvate is accompanied by the net production of two moles each of ATP and NADH.
Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi -----> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+
The NADH generated during glycolysis is used to fuel mitochondrial ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation, producing either two or three equivalents of ATP depending upon whether the glycerol phosphate shuttle or the malate-aspartate shuttle is used to transport the electrons from cytoplasmic NADH into the mitochondria. The net yield from the oxidation of 1 mole of glucose to 2 moles of pyruvate is, therefore, either 6 or 8 moles of ATP. Complete oxidation of the 2 moles of pyruvate, through the TCA cycle, yields an additional 30 moles of ATP; the total yield, therefore being either 36 or 38 moles of ATP from the complete oxidation of 1 mole of glucose to CO2 and H2O.
HOW IS BLOOD GLUCOSE REGULATED?
If for no other reason, it is because of the demands of the brain for oxidizable glucose that the human body exquisitely regulates the level of glucose circulating in the blood. This level is maintained in the range of 5mM. Nearly all carbohydrates ingested in the diet are converted to glucose following transport to the liver. Catabolism of dietary or cellular proteins generates carbon atoms that can be utilized for glucose synthesis via gluconeogenesis. Additionally, other tissues besides the liver that incompletely oxidize glucose ->predominantly skeletal muscle and erythrocytes) provide lactate that can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis. Maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis is of paramount importance to the survival of the human organism. The predominant tissue responding to signals that indicate reduced or elevated blood glucose levels is the liver. Indeed, one of the most important functions of the liver is to produce glucose for the circulation.
Both elevated and reduced levels of blood glucose trigger hormonal responses to initiate pathways designed to restore glucose homeostasis. Low blood glucose triggers release of glucagon from pancreatic a-cells. High blood glucose triggers release of insulin from pancreatic b-cells. Additional signals, ACTH and growth hormone, is released from the pituitary act to increase blood glucose by inhibiting uptake by extrahepatic tissues. Glucocorticoids also act to increase blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake. Cortisol, the major glucocorticoid released from the adrenal cortex, is secreted in response to the increase in circulating ACTH. The adrenal medullary hormone, epinephrine, stimulates production of glucose by activating glycogenolysis in response to stressful stimuli. Glucagon binding to its' receptors on the surface of liver cells triggers an increase in cAMP production leading to an increased rate of glycogenolysis by activating glycogen phosphorylase via the PKA-mediated cascade. This is the same response hepatocytes have to epinephrine release. The resultant increased levels of G6P in hepatocytes are hydrolyzed to free glucose, by glucose-6-phosphatase, which then diffuses to the blood. The glucose enters extrahepatic cells where it is re-phosphorylated by hexokinase. Since muscle and brain cells lack glucose-6-phosphatase, the glucose-6-phosphate product of hexokinase is retained and oxidized by these tissues.
In opposition to the cellular responses to glucagon ->and epinephrine on hepatocytes), insulin stimulates extrahepatic uptake of glucose from the blood and inhibits glycogenolysis in extrahepatic cells and conversely stimulates glycogen synthesis. As the glucose enters hepatocytes it binds to and inhibits glycogen phosphorylase activity. The binding of free glucose stimulates the de-phosphorylation of phosphorylase thereby, inactivating it. Why is it that the glucose that enters hepatocytes is not immediately phosphorylated and oxidized? Liver cells contain an isoform of hexokinase called glucokinase. Glucokinase has a much lower affinity for glucose than does hexokinase. Therefore, it is not fully active at the physiological ranges of blood glucose. Additionally, glucokinase is not inhibited by its product G6P, whereas, hexokinase is inhibited by G6P. One major response of non-hepatic tissues to insulin is the recruitment, to the cell surface, of glucose transporter complexes. Glucose transporters comprise a family of five members, GLUT-1 to GLUT-5. GLUT-1 is ubiquitously distributed in various tissues. GLUT-2 is found primarily in intestine, kidney and liver. GLUT-3 is also found in the intestine and GLUT-5 in the brain and testis. GLUT-5 is also the major glucose transporter present in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum ->ER) and serves the function of transporting glucose to the cytosol following its' dephosphorylation by the ER enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase. Insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue contain GLUT-4. When the concentration of blood glucose increases in response to food intake, pancreatic GLUT-2 molecules mediate an increase in glucose uptake, which leads to increased insulin secretion. Recent evidence has shown that the cell surface receptor for the human T cell leukemia virus ->HTLV) is the ubiquitous GLUT-1.
Hepatocytes, unlike most other cells, are freely permeable to glucose and are, therefore, essentially unaffected by the action of insulin at the level of increased glucose uptake. When blood glucose levels are low the liver does not compete with other tissues for glucose since the extrahepatic uptake of glucose is stimulated in response to insulin. Conversely, when blood glucose levels are high extrahepatic needs are satisfied and the liver takes up glucose for conversion into glycogen for future needs. Under conditions of high blood glucose, liver glucose levels will be high and the activity of glucokinase will be elevated. The G6P produced by glucokinase is rapidly converted to G1P by phosphoglucomutase, where it can then be incorporated into glycogen. Energy production is closely tied to consuming the right kind and amount of carbohydrate the performance-limiting nutrient. The process is very complicated and intricate and many of the enzymatic reactions have been omitted. For understanding each of these in depth, please refer to Professor King's Medical Biochemistry page references. 46-47
THE IMPORTANCE TRAINING ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR PERFORMANCE
It is important to realize that the body and brain both remember and record pace rate. When the pace slows, the imprint on physiology is recorded for repeating on a future day. Train slow translates to racing slow. When carbohydrate stores are depleted, the quality of the workout is depressed. If an athlete "teaches" the body biochemistry to adapt to a fast or prolonged pace, some of this pace-impression carries over to the next workout, the next, and the next' so on, until on race day, a performance pace imprint is expressed. Daily training with fuels, fluids, and electrolytes is closely related to the quantity and quality of muscle glycogen stores. The point is if the muscle fibers are not trained daily to utilize fuels, fluids, and electrolytes at a variety of paces, especially prolonged race pace sessions, the body will not achieve its optimal potential performance.
HOW CARBOHYDRATES TRANSLATE TO ENERGY
Dietary Carbohydrates are enzymatically to stored by percents:
1.) Muscle Glycogen ->73%) Glycogen Synthase ->an enzyme released when glycogen stores run low ->70-90 minutes exercise) restores glycogen rapidly the first 2 hours only slowly in small bits 6 hours AFTER exercise. After an exhaustive session, it may take up to 3 days post exercise to top off glycogen stores in the muscle sites.
2.) Liver Glycogen ->25%) stores primarily maintain blood sugar levels of glucose for brain cell life. Liver glycogen is rapidly depleted. Stores of glycogen in the liver are considered the main buffer of blood glucose levels. In the liver the action of glucose-6-phosphatase allows glycogenolysis to generate free glucose for maintaining blood glucose levels. The pre event meal taken 3 hours prior to an AM race tops off liver glycogen spent for life support during sleep.
3.) Blood Glucose ->2%) is enzyme-induced by Hexokinase, which limits body's use of blood sugar directly for exercise metabolism. Rapid turnover of blood glucose during exercise is the only time small frequent doses of high glycemic carbohydrates should be consumed. Athletes are advised against consuming processed fiber-low high glycemic carbohydrates at sedentary meals.
Energy expense "withdrawal" changes during exercise from different sources:
@ VO2 MAX 30%-65%
Not all exercise spends calories at the same rate:
TYPICAL CARBOHYDRATE DEPLETION BY ACTIVITY
Running 8 mph
THE BEST CARBOHYDRATE REPLENISHES GLYCOGEN
Glycogen synthesis from carbohydrate intake takes place most rapidly the first 30-120-minutes after exercise, though it may occur for up to 6 hours following depletion, though less rapidly ->trickles slowly). The best glycogen replacement is a complex processed carbohydrate Glucose Polymer  fiber-free glucose molecules linked together in long chains. Fiber is good for the colon health and breaking the rate of carbohydrate absorption, but not for consumption immediately after exercise.
RATE OF SPECIFIC CARBOHYDRATE ABSORPTION
Intestinal absorption rate is most rapid with from glucose polymer ->Maltodextrins) than from simple sugar solutions, permitting a higher total calorie absorption rate due to compatible osmolality levels. Body fluids are absorbed immediately across intestinal linings at an osmolality of 280-303 mOsm with no delay. In a fluid-ounce solution, calorie volume must be mixed at body-fluid osmolality levels in order for immediate absorption. When carbohydrates are mixed with water they are limited to the following body solution osmolality levels, otherwise absorption will be delayed until the stomach dilutes the hypertonic solution by withdrawing serum fluids:
@ AVAILABLE BODY FLUID OSMOLALITY 280-303 mOsm
Intestinal solution absorption may be predicted immediately at 280-303 mOsm body fluid levels for optimal muscle-energy benefits, especially postponing exercise-induced fatigue. Many substances are added to carbohydrate solutions to improve the efficiency of the energy repletion cycle. However, such substances ->protein calories, fatty acids, and electrolytes) surprisingly raise osmolality. Dr. David Ciaverella, D.O., Neuroradiologist, Portland, Oregon, and elite level Ironman Triathlete was recruited to determine Osmolality of several Hammer Nutrition solutions ->courtesy of Portland Providence Medical Center, laboratory services, Portland, Oregon.)
The following table reflects Dr. Ciaverella's results below red color code show solution osmolality measures of 4- or 8-fluid ounce distilled water solutions with 25 gram from the following solids: plain Hammer Gel, HEED, Perpetuem, and Sustained Energy. Solution isotonic osmolality ->mOsm) at body fluids level for immediately are absorbed between 280-303 mOsm. Based on these actual solution mOsm measures, the blue color code reflects body fluids mOsm level recommended version. To simplify these directions, a 10% solids-to-liquid ratio attains near-isotonic range 270-296 mOsm. Each solution osmolality was based on the predetermined hypertonic 4-fluid ounce added 3 Endurolytes then diluted in 8-fluid ounce solutions to which were also added 3 Endurolytes per 25 grams of Hammer Gel, or HEED, or Perpetuem, or Sustained Energy. From these measures, we learned precisely what carbohydrate solutions mixed predicted Osmolality @ body fluids level ->isotonic) if 3 Endurolytes each hour. Endurolytes add 25 mOsm per capsule in a dilute solution or as much as 40 mOsm per viscous solution. The revised solutions account for calories per serving based on 10, 20, or 25 fluid ounce solutions. Water bottles are 20 or 25 fluid ounces/per container.
ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS RECOMMENDED:
- HAMMER GEL 1 serving per 12 fl oz or 2 servings per 25 fl oz
- HEED 1 Scoop per 10 fl oz or 2 Scoops per 25 fl oz
- PERPETUEM 1 Scoop per 12 fl oz or 2 Scoops per 25 fl oz
- SUSTAINED ENERGY 1 scoop per 10 fl oz or 2 scoops per 25 fl oz
Energy solutions recommended at 10% product powder or gel to solution are reasonable close to isotonic body fluids osmolality when an athlete consumes 3 Endurolytes per hour with each 25 fluid ounce solution. Each individual athlete is advised to experiment with powders or gels in a 9-11% solution to determine in the crucible of training what solution best agrees with their performance efficiency. Based on actual osmolality solution lab measures,  a 10% solution ->gram-weight powder or gel divided by water fluid ounce gram weight) is recommended.
SOLUTIONS OSMOLALITY MEASURE
CALORIE PER FLUID RATIO
SAMPLE #1 PLAIN HAMMER GEL
HG 25 g
per 113.4g DW
+ 3 ENDUROLYTES[i]
65 K/cal per 4 fl oz
Current HG directions, 1 of 2: Mix 36 g serving with 4 fl oz
= 479 mOsm
DILUTED 2 X SAMPLE #1a PLAIN HAMMER GEL
HG 25 g
per 227 g DW
+ 3 ENDUROLYTES[ii]
per 8 fl oz
ISOTONIC SOLUTION ESTIMATE
PLAIN HG 2 servings 72 g
per 707 g DW
+ 3 ENDUROLYTES
per 25 fl oz
NEW Recommended HG directions: Mix 186 k/cal 72 g/25 fl oz
HEED 25 g
per 113.4 g DW
per 4 fl oz
Current HEED directions: Mix 1scoop/16 fl oz
->6.4%) = too low @ 174 mOsm
2 scoops 24 fl oz ->8.5%) = 274 mOsm
DILUTED 2 X SAMPLE #2a HEED
HEED 25 g
per 227 g DW
per 8 fl oz
ISOTONIC SOLUTION ESTIMATE
HEED 29 g
per 283 g DW or 58 g per 566 g per DW ->1 scoop per 10 fl oz)
100 k/cal per 10 fl oz
NEW Recommended HEED directions: Mix 100 k/cal 1 scoop 29 g per each 10 fl oz
New Estimated 287 mOsm
SAMPLE #3 Perpetuem
Perpetuem 25 g
per 113 g DW
per 4 fl oz
Current PERPETUEM directions: Mix 1 scoop per 12 fl oz = 302 mOsm
2 scoops per 24 fl oz = 302 mOsm
SAMPLE #3a Perpetuem
Perpetuem 25 g per 283 g DW
per 10 fl oz
ISOTONIC SOLUTION ESTIMATE
PERPETUEM 69 g per 25 fl oz ->708 g DW)
per 25 fl oz
NEW Recommended PERPETUEM directions: Mix 2 scoops 260 k/cal, ->69 g) per each 25 fl oz
Estimated 296 mOsm
SAMPLE #4 SUSTAINED ENERGY
SUSTAINED ENERGY 25 g
per 113 g DW +3 ENDUROLYTES[vii]
per 4 fl oz
SUSTAINED ENERGY directions: Mix 3 scoops /25 fl oz = 329 mOsm
9 scoops/25 fl oz = 658 mOsm
DILUTED 2 X SAMPLE #4a SUSTAINED ENERGY
SUSTAINED ENERGY 25 g
per 227 g DW +3 ENDUROLYTES[viii]
per 8 fl oz
ISOTONIC SOLUTION ESTIMATE
SUSTAINED ENERGY 28.3 g serving as 1 scoop per 283 g DW
->10 fl oz)
114 k/cal scoop serving per 10 fl oz
NEW Recommended SUSTAINED ENERGY directions: Mix 1 scoop, 114 k/cal, ->28 g) per each 10 fl oz
Estimated 270 mOsm
RED = mOsm original 4 fl oz: 25 g solution osmolality measured
BLUE = mOsm modified as recommended fl oz per 25 g solution set @ isotonic levels ->ideal)
DW = Distilled Water
113.4 g = 4 fl oz
As carbohydrates are digested, Jenkinsreports ->below) the type of carbohydrate consumed influences blood glucose:
BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE ->Average Change: + or - mg/dl)
+1 to +2
10 to -15
+25 or +30
+10 to +15
+25 or +30
+10 to +15
Following exhaustive exercise Colgan advises limiting glucose polymers intake to 225 grams after 2-4 hours post-exercise. Much more than that will only add body fat weight. Other research reports an average of 650 total grams carbohydrate is all the carb-calorie volume that the body can restore to glycogen stores daily. This calculates between 1.0-1.5 grams carbohydrate per hour exercise per pound of body weight. Ivy likewise reported that the maximum human carbohydrate synthesis is 225 grams of glucose polymers 4-hours following exercise. Above 225 grams the body begins to convert excess carbohydrates to dead weight fat.
Colgan also suggests that a relationship between body size and the amount of carbohydrate required replacing exercise-induced expense:
RECOMMENDATIONS CARBOHYDRATE REPLACEMENT FOR ENDURANCE PRE, DURING & AFTER EXERCISE
->Total grams complex-carbohydrates required/day)
PER POUND BODY WEIGHT
2 HOURS EXERCISE
4 HOURS EXERCISE
6 HOURS EXERCISE
However, this amount of carbohydrate should not be consumed in large meal portions. Glycogen resynthesis from carbohydrates consumed takes place most rapidly during the first 30 minutes though this rate diminishes lasting up to 2 hours after exercise. Glycogen storage rate may then proceed at low trickling rate for up to 6 hours post exercise. If the athlete consumes too much carbohydrate the excess is efficiently stored as fat.
Carbohydrate expense may be calculated by body weight X duration or as a representative event:
CARBOHYDRATE TOTAL DAILY INTAKE
VS EXPENSE BASED ON BODY SIZE
DAILY CARBOHYDRATE REQUIREMENT
REPRESENTATIVE EXERCISE EVENT
5-6 hours exercise/event
->Tour de France, Triathlons, RAAM, Ultramarathons, ECO Challenge)
3-4 hours exercise/event ->marathons, sprint triathlons, cycling races)
2 hours or less exercise/events ->Half marathons, 10K runs, sprint cycling events)
1 g/kg/2 hours
To enhance recovery after exercise ->include this total within above general totals)
Optimum absorption occurs within 30-minutes post exercise.
1 g/kg/during workouts
During 1-4 hour exercise/events ->limit to 60-70 grams/hour)
PRACTICAL GUIDELINES: HOW TO MAXIMIZE FUEL SELECTION FOR ENDURANCE EXERCISE
1.) During exercise, consume 60-70 grams complex carbohydrates to postpone glycogen depletion during exercise. The recommended ceiling for total carbohydrate intake depends on individual size and activity level; however, most endurance athletes require 600-900 grams per day training. Individual tolerated carbohydrate solutions should be determined in training. What works for one athlete may be performance-inhibiting for another.
2.) The performance-enhancing glycogen-structured carbohydrate-of-choice is the long-chain glucose polymer, Maltodextrin.
3.) Intermittent small carbohydrate-rich meals including up to 100 grams 3-hours prior to a workout, 60-70 grams carbohydrate per hour during workouts, and 200-225 grams long-chain glucose polymers or other complex carbohydrates 30-120 minutes after workouts is recommended to restore liver glycogen and muscle glycogen at maximal levels.
4.) Avoid the use of niacin-rich supplements or foods 3-hours prior to a workout session. Vitamin B-3 inhibits fatty acid mobilization and fatty acids contribution to energy metabolism during exercise.
5.) Avoid simple sugars period & prior to, during, or after exercise. This aids the athlete to avoid gastrointestinal reactions, sharp insulin spiking and the subsequent blood sugar "crash" prevalent among persons who consume high simple sugar foods and drinks.
6.) Avoid energy drinks, bars, and gels that contain these additives: sucrose, fructose, or high fructose corn-syrup solids.
7.) Use energy drinks, bars, or gels that predominantly contain complex carbohydrates ->long-chain glucose polymer base) and/or lean muscle amino acids from soy, whey, or egg whites. When an energy fuel's calories from amino acids ranges from 5-12%, this protein profile spares lean muscle mass loss, advances recovery, and may spare muscle glycogen when consumed during or after a prolonged workout.
8.) CARBOHYDRATE DOSE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MAXIMAL CARBOHYDRATE-TO-MUSCLE-GLYCOGEN STORES:
WHEN AND WHAT AND HOW MUCH
PRIOR TO EXERCISE
Take 100 grams carbohydrates
3-4 scoops Sustained Energy or 4 servings Hammer Gel 3 hours pre-race.
Take 60-70 grams carbohydrates per hour Solution of from solutions osmolality table listed ->page 28).
This estimate identifies the carbohydrate dose recommended based on weight and product servings per hour during exercise ->-/+10%):
CALORIES PER HOUR
HAMMER GEL SERVINGS
SUSTAINED ENERGY SCOOPS
Does this seem like a lot of carbohydrates? No it is not, because too many endurance athletes wait too long after their workouts failing to use the body's sensitive enzyme, glycogen synthase mechanism for replacing depleted glycogen. Current research demonstrates that when 3-4 parts carbohydrate are mixed with 1 part protein and consumed immediately after exercise, the immune system is supplied with the metabolites it requires to advance recovery at its highest rate.
There are 2 solutions that fulfill this recommendation
->1) Consume pre-mixed muscle recovery specific, Recoverite, as indicated on label directions.
->2) Consume a calorie-portion mixture of one of the following: 4-parts Hammer Gel, or Sustained Energy, or Perpetuem, or HEED to 1-part Hammer Whey or Hammer Soy.
Why is timing carbohydrate dose so important for keeping liver and muscle glycogen stores at their peak levels?
CARBOHYDRATE TIMING DOSE EFFECTS GLYCOGEN REPLACEMENT
Professor Noakes recommends 600 ml fluid per hour ->20 fl oz) with up to 120 grams maltodextrin energy drink in order to convert 50% complex carbohydrate drink ->60 grams maltodextrin solution) into the energy cycle from exogenous carbohydrate-rich foods processed from the liver and sent to assist muscles with energy expense. There are different dietary interventions known and shown to dramatically effect muscle and liver glycogen ->carbohydrate) stores:
TIMING CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE
GLYCOGEN STORES MUSCLE ->g/kg)
GLYCOGEN STORES LIVER ->g/kg)
Low carbohydrate Diet
High carbohydrate diet
->3-day low carbohydrate intake during training)
3 day high carbohydrate loading
After 3-4 hours intense 70-85% VO2 Max rate
24 hours post-race ->high CHO)
48 hours post-race ->high CHO)
7 days post-race ->high CHO)
Short lived is the "Metabolic fate" of carbohydrate meals proportionate to their rapid loss during exercise. By consuming a high percent of long-chain carbohydrate-rich food, endurance athletes predictably maintain much higher energy postponing fatigue. Unforeseen, unexpected, and hidden performance-inhibiting problems are remarkably eliminated proportionate to the athlete using carbohydrate calories for endurance energy expense. This process begins with commitment to a healthy whole food nutrition plan such as the Endurance Diet, and continues with precise timing intake the long-chain carbohydrates, resulting in peaked endurance performance in the event of choice.
 Research and product development Director for EMG, Whitefish, Montana.
By permission, courtesy of the International Starch Institute.
Science Park Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark. http://www.starch.dk/isi/starch/starch.htm
Phone: +45 8620 2000. Telefax: +45 8620 1222. CVR: 17703188
High 80-100 %Amylopectin in potato starch is nearly identical to human glycogen.
 In-Tele-Health - 2002 (from Hyperhealth Pro CD-ROM)
 By permission, courtesy of Professor Michael W. King, IU School of Medicine and IU Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine, THCME at ISU Room 135HH, Terre Haute, IN. 47809, (voice) 812-237-3417. The Medical Biochemistry Page @:
 By permission, courtesy of Professor Michael W. King, IU School of Medicine and IU Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine. The Medical Biochemistry Page @
 Costill, D.L., Metabolic responses during distance running. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY 28, 1970:251-255.
 Ahlborg B., et al., Muscle glycogen and electrolytes during prolonged physical exercise. ACTA PHYSIOL SCAND, 1967;70:129-142.
 GLUCOSE POLYMERS are long chain carbohydrates commonly called maltodextrins.
 Jones B.J.M. et al., Glucose Absorption from Maltotriose and Glucose Oligomers in the Human Jejunum, Clinical Science, 1987;72:409-414.
 Courtesy ofDr. David Ciaverella, D.O., Neuroradiologist, & Portland Providence Medical Center, laboratory services, Portland, Oregon.
 Special thanks to Dr. David Ciaverella D.O., Columbia Imaging Group, 8614 E. Mill Plain Blvd., Suite 200A, Vancouver, WA 98664, (360) 892-9664 for assistance with lab solution mOsm measures.
 Simplification: KISS adage is stated: "Keep It Simple Stupid" is appropriate for an across-the-board translation of 10% solids to fluid solution.
 Courtesy of Dr. David Ciaverella, D.O.& Portland Providence Medical Center, laboratory services; Portland, Oregon.
Jenkins, J.A., Glycemic index of a variety of foods, data from normal individuals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (table).
 Colgan, M., OPTIMUM SPORTS NUTRITION, Advanced Research Press, New York, 1993:94-110.
 Ivy JL, Lee MC, Brozinick JT Jr, Reed MJ Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1988 Nov 65:5 2018-23.
 Colgan, M., OPTIMUM SPORTS NUTRITION, Advanced Research Press, New York, 1993:94-122.
 Hawley, J.A., Burke, L.M., Peak performance training and nutritional strategies for sport, Allen and Irwin, Sidney, 1998.
 Noakes T.D., Rehrer N.J., Maughn R.J., The Importance of Volume in Regulating Gastric Emptying, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(3)1991.
[i] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[ii] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[iii] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[iv] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[v] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[vi] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[vii] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant
[viii] ENDUROLYTE mOsm = 25-40 mOsm/capsule solution calorie mix dependant